Under the sea

5 ways cephalopods challenge our understanding of evolution

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Here are 5 ways cephalopods are changing our understanding of life on Earth.

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5. Octopuses can defy their own DNA

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4. Invertebrates may be more social than we thought

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MDMA is well-known as both a party drug and a potential therapeutic for PTSD and anxiety. It works in part by increasing the neurotransmitter serotonin.

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3. Squid could be man's next best friend

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The study was the first to view a squid brain with an MRI machine and could shed light on their incredible camouflage abilities.

2. Self-control may not be just for primates

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Cuttlefish are one of the few non-primates to show signs of self-control, a study conducted by University of Cambridge scientists recently found.

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1. Invertebrates may feel pain like we do

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Researchers from San Francisco State University found that octopuses may have a similar capacity to feel pain and act to avoid it.

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Further study could explain the evolution of pain, and expand our understanding of which animals experience it.

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