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Astronomers devised a way to tell when a red supergiant star is about to explode, based on observations from supernovae. Stars envelop themselves in gas in their final months, dimming considerably to telescopes. This early warning could help astronomers capture an impending supernova as it happens.
Researchers determined oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere likely fluctuated wildly around 1 billion years ago, contrary to theories that oxygen only increased after it appeared 2 billion years ago. That would have allowed animals to evolve and then die off in cycles, increasing species diversity.
Researchers found marine vertical migrators like squid will likely expand their habitats by up to 20 degrees of latitude north and south as warming oceans increase their metabolism. That differs from coastal marine animals, which scientists expect to be forced from their habitats.